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Japanese era and modern reign names

The following table is meant as a quick guideline to Japanese era names since 645 CE. Dates are provided down to the month (lunar months up to the end of 1872); the precise dates would be different under the Gregorian calendar.

It should be remembered that reigns typically end and begin in the same year, so that one calendar year may contain both the last year of the old reign and the first year of the new reign. The Shōwa Emperor, for example, died on January 7, 1989, meaning that 1989 was both Shōwa 64 and Heisei 1, with the latter starting from January 8, the day after the emperor's death. The very rough listing of historical events relies heavily on the chronologies in The Cambridge History of Japan, although in some cases preference has been given to current Japanese sources. For a slide-out list of all Japanese emperors -- both legendary and historical -- click here.

Corrections to mistakenly entered data will be gratefully received at Contact.

Note: Intercalary months are indicated by an asterisk.

Pre-Nara Japan
Dates (CE) Era name Japanese Events
645.6 - 650.2 Taika 大化 645 Taika (Great) Reform(s); capital moved to Naniwa.
650.2 - 654.10 Hakuchi (Hakuhō) 白雉 (白鳳) The period can be referred to as either Hakuchi or Hakuhō, occupying the latter half of the reign of Emperor Kōtoku (r. 645-654). Hakuhō (originally an elegant alternative to Hakuchi) was also apparently used intermittently as an unofficial era name (shi-nengō) until 686. The Hakuhō period in art generally, although not always, refers to the years between the Taika Reform of 645 and the establishment of the capital in Nara in 710.
654.10 - 686.7 (Hakuhō) (白鳳) No official era name exists for this period, although "Hakuhō" seems to have been used occasionally on an unofficial basis. The Hakuchi/Hakuhō ambiguity is further compounded by scholars who contend that "Hakuhō" refers to a period (661-683) under the "Kyūshū court" as postulated by Yoshida Takehiko.

667 Capital moved to Ōtsu in Ōmi Province.

672 Tenmu emerges victorious in the Jinshin Disturbance
686.7 - 686.9 Shuchō 朱鳥 The era officially ended with the death of Emperor Tenmu in 686, but the name continued in unofficial use through the reign of Empress Jitō (r. 690-97).

694 Capital moved to Fujiwara in Yamato Province.
701.3 - 704.5 Taihō 大宝 701 Taihō ritsuryō penal and civil codes promulgated.
704.5 - 708.1 Keiun 慶雲  
Nara period (710-794)
Emperors
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Dates (CE) Era name Japanese Events
708.1 - 715.9 Wadō 和銅 710 Capital moved to Heijō-kyō (Nara) by Empress Genmei.
712 Kojiki completed by Ō no Yasumaro.
715.9 - 717.11 Reiki 霊亀  
717.11 - 724.2 Yōrō 養老 718 Yōrō penal and civil codes compiled.
720 Nihon shoki completed.
724.2 - 729.8 Jinki 神亀  
729.8 - 749.4 Tenpyō 天平  
749.4 - 749.7 Tenpyō Kanpō 天平感宝  
749.7 - 757.8 Tenpyō Shōhō 天平勝宝 752 Great Buddha of Tōdaiji completed.
754 Priest Ganjin arrives from China.
756 Shōsōin constructed.
757.8 - 765.1 Tenpyō
Hōji
天平宝字 759 Last dated poem of the Man'yōshū.
764 Revolt of Fujiwara no Nakamaro crushed.
765.1 - 767.8 Tenpyō Shingo 天平神護  
767.8 - 770.9 Jingo Keiun 神護景雲  
770.10 - 780.12 Hōki 宝亀 770 Priest Dōkyō exiled.
781.1 - 782.8 Ten'ō 天応  
Heian period (794-1185)
Emperors
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Dates (CE) Era name Japanese Events
782.8 - 806.5 Enryaku 延暦 784 Capital moved to Nagaoka.
788 Priest Saichō builds Enryakuji.
794 Capital moved to Heian-kyō (Kyoto) by Emperor Kanmu.
806.5 - 810.9 Daidō 大同  
810.9 - 824.1 Kōnin 弘仁 811 Emishi defeated after thirty years of conflict.
816 Priest Kūkai establishes Kongōbuji on Mount Kōya.
824.1 - 834.1 Tenchō 天長 832 Priest Kūkai establishes a Shingon chapel inside the imperial palace.
834.1 - 848.6 Jōwa 承和 838 Last official embassy to Tang China.
847 Priest Ennin returns from China, introducing Tendai and Mikkyō (esoteric Buddhism) practices.
848.6 - 851.4 Kashō 嘉祥  
851.4 - 854.11 Ninju 仁寿  
854.11 - 857.2 Saikō 斉衡  
857.2 - 859.4 Tennan 天安  
859.4 - 877.4 Jōgan 貞観 866 Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes the first person not of imperial birth to receive the title of regent (sesshō).
877.4 - 885.2 Gangyō 元慶  
885.2 - 889.4 Ninna 仁和  
889.4 - 898.4 Kanpei 寛平 894 Plan to send an embassy to Tang China is canceled.
898.4 - 901.7 Shōtai 昌泰  
901.7 - 923.4* Engi 延喜 901 Nihon sandai jitsuroku, last of the Six National Histories, completed.
905 Kokinshū compiled.
923.4* - 931.4 Enchō 延長  
931.4 - 938.5 Jōhei
(or Shōhei)
丞平 935 Jōhei-Tengyō Disturbance begins.
937.5 - 947.4 Tengyō 天慶 939-40 Rebellion by Taira no Masakado
941 Fujiwara no Tadahira is appointed kanpaku, a title henceforth used for regents of adult emperors.
947.4 - 957.10 Tenryaku 天暦  
957.10 - 961.2 Tentoku 天徳  
961.2 - 964.7 Ōwa 応和  
964.7 - 968.8 Kōhō 康保  
968.8 - 970.3 Anna 安和  
970.3 - 973.12 Tenroku 天禄  
973.12 - 976.7 Ten'en 天延  
976.7 - 978.11 Jōgen 貞元  
978.11 - 983.4 Tengen 天元  
983.4 - 985.4 Eikan 永観  
985.4 - 987.4 Kanwa 寛和 985 Priest Genshin writes Ōjō yōshū (The Essentials of Rebirth in the Pure Land).
987.4 - 989.8 Eien 永延  
989.8 - 990.11 Eiso 永祚  
990.11 - 995.2 Shōryaku 正暦  
995.2 - 999.1 Chōtoku 長徳 995 Fujiwara no Michinaga becomes nairan ("private inspector"), cementing his control over the court; until 1027, the height of Fujiwara influence.
999.1 - 1004.7 Chōho 長保 Makura no sōshi (The Pillow Book) by Sei Shōnagon largely completed by this time.
1004.7 - 1012.12 Kankō 寛弘 Genji monogatari (The Tale of Genji) by Murasaki Shikibu completed about this time.
1012.12 - 1017.4 Chōwa 長和  
1017.4 - 1021.2 Kan'in 寛仁  
1021.2 - 1024.7 Jian 治安  
1024.7 - 1028.7 Manju 万寿  
1028.7 - 1037.4 Chōgen 長元 1028 Revolt of Taira no Tadatsune (surrenders to Minamoto no Yorinobu in 1031).
1037.4 - 1040.11 Chōryaku 長暦  
1040.11 - 1044.11 Chōkyū 長久  
1044.11 - 1046.4 Kantoku 寛徳  
1046.4 - 1053.1 Eishō 永承 1051 Beginning of the Earlier Nine Years' War under Minamoto no Yoriyoshi.
1053.1 - 1058.8 Tenki 天喜 1053 Hōōdō (Phoenix Hall) constructed at the Byōdōin by Minamoto no Yorimichi.
1058.8 - 1065.8 Kōhei 康平 1063 Yoriyoshi secretly builds shrine dedicated to Hachiman in Sagami Province.
1065.8 - 1069.4 Jiryaku 治暦 1068 Emperor Go-Sanjō becomes the first emperor in 170 years whose mother is not a Fujiwara.
1069.4 - 1074.8 Enkyū 延久  
1074.8 - 1077.11 Shōhō 承保  
1077.11 - 1081.2 Shōryaku 承暦  
1081.2 - 1084.2 Eiho 永保  
1084.2 - 1087.2 Ōtoku 応徳 1086 Emperor Shirakawa abdicates and establishes his Senior Retired Emperor's Office (In-no-chō).
1087.2 - 1094.12 Kanji 寛治  
1094.12 - 1096.12 Kahō 嘉保  
1096.12 - 1097.11 Eichō 永長  
1097.11 - 1099.8 Shōtoku 承徳  
1099.8 - 1104.2 Kōwa 康和  
1104.2 - 1106.4 Chōji 長治  
1106.4 - 1108.8 Kashō 嘉承  
1108.8 - 1110.7 Tennin 天仁  
1110.7 - 1112.7 Ten'ei 天永  
1113.7 - 1118.4 Eikyū 永久  
1118.4 - 1120.4 Genei 元永  
1120.4 - 1124.4 Hōan 保安  
1124.4 - 1126.1 Tenji 天治  
1126.1 - 1131.1 Taiji 大治 1129 The retired emperor Toba, Shirakawa's grandson, becomes senior retired emperor; he relies on the Ise Heishi for military support.
1131.1 - 1132.8 Tenshō 天承  
1132.8 - 1135.4 Chōshō 長承  
1135.4 - 1141.7 Hōen 保延  
1141.7 - 1142.4 Eiji 永治  
1142.4 - 1144.2 Kōji 康治  
1144.2 - 1145.7 Ten'yō 天養  
1145.7 - 1151.1 Kyūan 久安  
1151.1 - 1154.10 Ninpei 仁平  
1154.10 - 1156.4 Kyūju 久寿  
1156.4 - 1159.4 Hōgen 保元 1156 Hōgen Disturbance; Taira no Kiyomori and Minamoto no Yoshitomo support victorious Emperor Go-Shirakawa.
1159.4 - 1160.1 Heiji 平治 1159 Heiji Disturbance; Kiyomori foils Yoshitomo's attempted coup.
1160.1 - 1161.9 Eiryaku 永暦  
1161.9 - 1163.3 Ōhō 応保  
1163.3 - 1165.6 Chōkan 長寛  
1165.6 - 1166.8 Eiman 永万  
1166.8 - 1169.4 Nin'an 仁安 1167 Taira no Kiyomori becomes chancellor (daijōdaijin).
1169.4 - 1171.4 Kaō 嘉応  
1171.4 - 1175.7 Shōan 承安  
1175.7 - 1177.8 Angen 安元 1175 Hōnen preaches Pure Land teachings in Kyoto, leading to formation of the popular Pure Land sect.
1177.8 - 1181.7 Jishō 治承 1181 Death of Kiyomori.
1181.7 - 1182.5 Yōwa 養和  
1182.5 - 1184.4 Juei 寿永  
1184.4 - 1185.8 Genryaku 元暦  
Kamakura period (1185-1333)
Emperors
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Dates (CE) Era name Japanese Events
1185.8 - 1190.4 Bunji 文治 1185 Final defeat of the Heike by Minamoto no Yoshitsune at Dan-no-ura. The establishment by Minamoto no Yoritomo of the shugo-jitō (military governor and land steward) system in the first year of the Bunji era is now taught in Japanese schools to mark the start of the Kamakura Period.
1190.4 - 1199.4 Kenkyū 建久 1192 Kamakura Bakufu established by Minamoto no Yoritomo. Formerly taught in Japanese schools to mark the beginning of the Kamakura Period.
1199.4 - 1201.2 Shōji 正治 1199 Death of Yoritomo.
1201.2 - 1204.2 Kennin 建仁  
1204.2 - 1206.4 Genkyū 元久 1204 Assassination of Minamoto no Yoriie by Hōjō Tokimasa.
1206.4 - 1207.10 Ken'ei 建永  
1207.10 - 1211.3 Shōgen 承元  
1211.3 - 1213.12 Kenryaku 建暦  
1213.12 - 1219.4 Kenpō 建保  
1219.4 - 1222.4 Jōkyū 承久 1221 Jōkyū Disturbance results in stronger bakufu control.
1222.4 - 1224.11 Jōō 貞応  
1224.11 - 1225.4 Gennin 元仁  
1225.4 - 1227.12 Karoku 嘉禄  
1227.12 - 1229.3 Antei 安貞  
1229.3 - 1232.4 Kanki 寛喜  
1232.4 - 1233.4 Jōei 貞永 1232 Jōei (or, more properly, Goseibai) Code promulgated; 51 articles governing samurai behavior.
1233.4 - 1234.11 Tenpuku 天福  
1234.11 - 1235.9 Bunryaku 文暦  
1235.9 - 1238.11 Katei 嘉禎  
1238.11 - 1239.2 Ryakunin 暦仁  
1239.2 - 1240.7 En'ō 延応  
1240.7 - 1243.2 Ninji 仁治  
1243.2 - 1247. 2 Kangen 寛元 1244 Construction of Eiheiji.
1247.2 - 1249.3 Hōji 宝治  
1249.3 - 1256.10 Kenchō 建長  
1256.10 - 1257.3 Kōgen 康元  
1257.3 - 1259.3 Shōka 正嘉  
1259.3 - 1260.4 Shōgen 正元  
1260.4 - 1261.2 Bun'ō 文応  
1261.2 - 1264.2 Kōchō 弘長  
1264.2 - 1275.4 Bun'ei 文永 1266 Kublai Khan seeks relations with Japan, sends envoys in 1268.
1274 Mongols attempt first invasion of Japan.
1275.4 - 1278.2 Kenji 建治  
1278.2 - 1288.4 Kōan 弘安 1281 Mongols attempt second invasion of Japan.
1288.4 - 1293.8 Shōō 正応  
1293.8 - 1299.4 Einin 永仁  
1299.4 - 1302.11 Shōan 正安  
1302.11 - 1303.8 Kengen 乾元  
1303.8 - 1306.12 Kagen 嘉元  
1306.12 - 1308.10 Tokuji 徳治  
1308.10 - 1311.4 Enkyō 延慶  
1311.4 - 1312.3 Ōchō 応長  
1312.3 - 1317.2 Shōwa 正和  
1317.2 - 1319.4 Bunpō 文保 1318 Emperor Go-Daigo ascends throne.
1319.4 - 1321.2 Gen'ō 元応  
1321.2 - 1324.12 Genkō 元亨  
1324.12 - 1326.4 Shōchū 正中  
1326.4 - 1329.8 Karyaku 嘉暦  
1329.8 - 1331.8 Gentoku 元徳  
Muromachi period (1333-1573)
Emperors
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Dates (CE) Era name Japanese Events
1331.8 - 1334.1 Genkō 元弘 Emperor Go-Daigo adopted the era name "Genkō" in 1331, but Emperor Kōgon of the Northern Court continued to use the previous name "Gentoku" until until 1332.4 (Gentoku 4), when he promulgated the "Shōkyō" era name (see below). The Shōkyō era thus marks the start of alternative reign names that continued throughout the Northern and Southern Courts period (1336-1392). In 1333.5, however, the overthrow of the Kamakura Bakufu resulted in the disenthronement of Kōgon, so until 1338, the Northern Court reverted to "Kenmu."

1333  Kamakura Bakufu overthrown.
1334.1 - 1336.2 Kenmu 建武 "Kenmu" was used by Emperor Go-Daigo until 1336.2, when the era name for the Southern Court was changed to "Engen." The Northern Court under Emperor Kōmyō continued to use "Kenmu" until 1338.8, when the era name was changed to "Ryakuō."
1336.2 - 1340.4 Engen 延元 1336: Beginning of the Northern and Southern Courts period (until 1392), with Emperor Kōmyō in Kyoto and Emperor Go-Daigo at Yoshino in Nara. The year is Engen 1 for the Southern Court and Kenmu 3 for the Northern Court. The lighter shading indicates Sourthern Court era names.

1338 Muromachi Bakufu established in Kyoto by Ashikaga Takauji.
1340.4 - 1346.12 Kōkoku 興国  
1346.12 - 1370.7 Shōhei 正平 1358 Death of Ashikaga Takauji.
1370.7 - 1372.10 Kentoku 建徳  
1372.10 - 1375.5 Bunchū 文中  
1375.5 - 1381.2 Tenju 天授  
1381.2 - 1384.4 Kōwa 弘和  
1384.4 - 1392.10* Genchū 元中 1391-92 Meitoku Rebellion put down by Muromachi Bakufu.
1392 Reunification of Northern and Southern Courts in Genchū 9 (Meitoku 3 for the Northern Court).
1332.4 - 1334.1 Shōkyō 正慶 1332 Beginning of reign names considered exclusive to the Northern Court. "Shōkyō" was used at the court of Emperor Kōgon (r. 1331-1333); a return to "Kenmu" after Kōgon's disenthronement lasted until 1336.2, when Emperor Go-Daigo of the Southern Court changed his court's era name to Engen (see above). The Kenmu era name thereafter continued in use only at the Northern Court until 1338, when "Ryakuō" was adopted. The darker shading indicates Northern Court era names.
1338.8 - 1342.4 Ryakuō 暦応 1338 Muromachi Bakufu established in Kyoto by Ashikaga Takauji.
1342.4 - 1345.10 Kōei 康永  
1345.10 - 1350.2 Jōwa 貞和  
1350.2 - 1352.9 Kannō 観応  
1352.9 - 1356.3 Bunwa 文和  
1356.3 - 1361.3 Enbun 延文 1358 Death of Ashikaga Takauji.
1361.3 - 1362.9 Kōan 康安  
1362.9 - 1368.2 Jōji 貞治  
1368.2 - 1375.2 Ōan 応安  
1375.2 - 1379.3 Eiwa 永和  
1379.3 - 1381.2 Kōryaku 康暦  
1381.2 - 1384.2 Eitoku 永徳  
1384.2 - 1387.8 Shitoku 至徳  
1387.8 - 1389.2 Kakei 嘉慶  
1389.2 - 1390.3 Kōō 康応  
1390.3 - 1394.7 Meitoku 明徳 1391-92 Meitoku Rebellion put down by Muromachi Bakufu.
1392 Meitoku 3 (Genchū 9 for the Southern Court) marks the return to a unified sequence of era names under Emperor Go-Komatsu of the Northern Court.
1394.7 - 1428.4 Ōei 応永 1397 Kinkakuji built by Ashikaga Yoshimitsu.
1428.4 - 1429.9 Shōchō 正長  
1429.9 - 1441.2 Eikyō 永享  
1441.2 - 1444.2 Kakitsu 嘉吉 1441 Kakitsu Disturbance, resulting in the assassination of Ashikaga Yoshinori.
1444.2 - 1449.7 Bun'an 文安  
1449.7 - 1452.7 Hōtoku 宝徳  
1452.7 - 1455.7 Kyōtoku 享徳  
1455.7 - 1457.9 Kōshō 康正  
1457.9 - 1460.12 Chōroku 長禄  
1460.12 - 1466.2 Kanshō 寛正  
1466.2 - 1467.3 Bunshō 文正  
1467.3 - 1469.4 Ōnin 応仁 1467 Ōnin War begins, continuing until 1477.
1469.4 - 1487.7 Bunmei 文明 1480s Sengoku (Warring States) daimyō emerge. The Sengoku period is sometimes said to start in 1467, sometimes in 1493; the end is variously marked at 1568, 1573, or 1590.
1487.7 - 1489.8 Chōkyō 長享  
1489.8 - 1492.7 Entoku 延徳  
1492.7 - 1501.2 Meiō 明応  
1501.2 - 1504.2 Bunki 文亀  
1504.2 - 1521.8 Eishō 永正  
1521.8 - 1528.8 Taiei 大永  
1528.8 - 1532.7 Kyōroku 享禄  
1532.7 - 1555.10 Tenbun 天文 1543 Portuguese traders introduce Western muskets and canon into Japan.
1549 Francis Xavier lands at Kagoshima and begins Christian mission.
1555.10 - 1558.2 Kōji 弘治  
1558.2 - 1570.4 Eiroku 永禄 1560 Oda Nobunaga defeats Imagawa Yoshimoto in the Battle of Okehazama, concludes an alliance with Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1562.
1570.4 - 1573.7 Genki 元亀 1571 Nobunaga destroys Enryakuji, headquarters of the Tendai sect on Mt. Hiei near Kyoto.
Azuchi-Momoyama period (1573-1600)
Emperors
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Dates (CE) Era name Japanese Events
1573.7 - 1592.12 Tenshō 天正 1582 Nobunaga betrayed by Akechi Mitsuhide; Toyotomi Hideyoshi avenges Nobunaga's death, enters Osaka Castle in 1583.
1585 Hideyoshi becomes imperial regent (kanpaku).
1592 After defeating the Go-Hōjō at Odawara in 1590, Hideyoshi invades Korea; truce reached in 1596.
1592.12 - 1596.10 Bunroku 文禄  
Edo (Tokugawa) period (1600-1867)
Emperors
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Dates (CE) Era name Japanese Events
1596.10 - 1615.7 Keichō 慶長 1597 Hideyoshi moves to Osaka Castle, orders second invasion of Korea.
1598 Hideyoshi dies and Japanese armies leave Korea.
1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu wins victory in the Battle of Sekigahara, achieving military predominance; Edo (Tokugawa) Bakufu established in 1603.
1615 Defeat of Toyotomi Hideyori at Osaka.
1615.7 - 1624.2 Genna 元和 1616 Death of Ieyasu, interred first at Mt. Kunō in Shizuoka and later at Nikkō.
1624.2 - 1644.12 Kan'ei 寛永 1617 Western trading ships limited to Nagasaki and Hirado; Japanese ships prohibited from travelling abroad in 1635; Chinese traders limited to Nagasaki the same year; Portuguese ships forbidden to land from 1639; Dutch trading mission moved to Dejima in Nagasaki in 1641, completing the implementation of the bakufu's policy of national seclusion (sakoku).
1617 Licensed quarter at Yoshiwara in Edo authorized.
1635 System of alternate service (sankin kōtai) institutionalized.
1637 Shimabara Rebellion.
1644.12 - 1648.2 Shōhō 正保  
1648.2 - 1652.9 Keian 慶安  
1652.9 - 1655.4 Shōō 承応  
1655.4 - 1658.7 Meireki 明暦 1657 Much of Edo destroyed in a great fire.
1658.7 - 1661.4 Manji 万治  
1661.4 - 1673.9 Kanbun 寛文  
1673.9 - 1681.9 Enpō 延宝  
1681.9 - 1684.2 Tenna 天和  
1684.2 - 1688.9 Jōkyō 貞享  
1688.9 - 1704.3 Genroku 元禄 A high point in Japanese culture reached with the activities of Chikamatsu Monzaemon (puppet theater), Ihara Saikaku (fiction), and Matsuo Bashō (haikai/haiku).

1702
Vendetta of the Akō rōnin; dramatized and first performed at the Takemoto-za in Osaka in 1748.
1704.3 - 1711.4 Hōei 宝永  
1711.4 - 1716.6 Shōtoku 正徳 1716 First major reform of Tokugawa shogunate under Yoshimune.
1716.6 - 1736.4 Kyōhō 享保 1733 First violent uprisings by commoners in Edo protesting high prices.
1736.4 - 1741.2 Genbun 元文  
1741.2 - 1744.2 Kanpō 寛保  
1744.2 - 1748.7 Enkyō 延享  
1748.7 - 1751.10 Kan'en 寛延  
1751.10 - 1764.6 Hōreki 宝暦  
1764.6 - 1772.11 Meiwa 明和  
1772.11 - 1781.4 An'ei 安永  
1781.4 - 1789.1 Tenmei 天明 1787 Matsudaira Sadanobu appointed senior councilor, initiates the Kansei Reforms; forced into retirement in 1793.
1789.1 - 1801.2 Kansei 寛政  
1801.2 - 1804.2 Kyōwa 享和  
1804.2 - 1818.4 Bunka 文化 1811 Shogunate establishes an office to translate Western documents.
1818.4 - 1830.12 Bunsei 文政  
1830.12 - 1844.12 Tenpō 天保 1837 Ōshio Heihachirō leads riots in Osaka.
1841 Tenpō Reforms begun by Mizuno Tadakuni.
1844.12 - 1848.2 Kōka 弘化  
1848.2 - 1854.11 Kaei 嘉永 1853 Commodore Perry arrives at Uraga.
1854.11 - 1860.3 Ansei 安政 1858 Ii Naosuke forces approval of American treaty.
1860.3 - 1861.2 Man'en 万延 1860 Ii Naosuke assassinated.
1861.2 - 1864.2 Bunkyū 文久  
1864.2 - 1865.4 Genji 元治  
1865.4 - 1868.9 Keiō 慶応 1867 Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquishes title as shogun.
Meiji period (1868-1912)
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Dates (CE) Era name Japanese Events
1868.9 - 1912.7 Meiji 明治 1868 Edo renamed Tokyo and designated capital; era names made to coincide with reign of emperor.
1872 Conscription and education ordinances enacted.
1873 Land taxes revised; signs prohibiting Christianity taken down.
1877 Satsuma Rebellion.
1884 Peerage created.
1885 Cabinet system established.
1889 Constitution promulgated; first national election held in 1890.
1894-95 Sino-Japanese War; annexation of Taiwan.
1904-05 Russo-Japanese War.
1910 Annexation of Korea.
Taishō period (1912-1926)
Dates (CE) Era name Japanese Events
1912.7 - 1926.12 Taishō 大正 1914-1918 World War I.
1923 Great Kantō Earthquake.
1926 Universal male suffrage (first election in 1928).
Shōwa period (1926-1989)
Emperors
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Dates (CE) Era name Japanese Events
1926.12- 1989.1 Shōwa 昭和 1931 Manchurian Incident.
1933 Japan leaves League of Nations (effective 1935).
1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor.
1945 Atomic bombs dropped; end of World War II.
1951 Treaty of San Francisco signed
1955
Liberal Democratic Party achieves political dominance.
1964 Summer Olympics held in Tokyo; Shinkansen "bullet train" starts operation.
1972 Okinawa returned to Japan.
1973 First "oil shock" begins.
1978 Second "oil shock" begins.
Heisei period (1989-2019)
Dates (CE) Era name Japanese Events
1989.1- 2019.4 Heisei 平成 1990 Japanese economic bubble bursts; beginning of the "Lost Decade."
1993 The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) fails to win a majority in the House of Representatives; coalition cabinets formed beginning in 1994.
2009 The Democratic Party of Japan wins a majority of seats in the House of Representatives, marking the end of LDP parliamentary rule.
2011 The Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11).
2012 The LDP-Kōmeitō coalition regains control of the House of Representatives in a landslide general-election victory.
2013 The Liberal Democratic Party cements its comeback with an overwhelming victory in the House of Councillors election.
2019 The Heisei Emperor (Akihito) abdicates on April 30.
Reiwa period (2019-)
Emperors
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Dates (CE) Era name Japanese Events
2019.5- Reiwa 令和 2019 Crown Prince Naruhito installed as emperor on May 1, becoming the first emperor in modern times to ascend the thrown while the previous emperor is still alive.
2021 The 2020 Tokyo Olympics open on July 23 after being delayed a year because of the coronavirus pandemic.

Japanese emperors
(tennō; 天皇)

The following table contains the names and reign dates of the 126 legendary and historical Japanese tennō, beginning in 660 BCE with Jinmu and ending with the current emperor, Naruhito. With respect to the line of succession, the term used to refer to the present retired emperor, whose name is Akihito (明仁), is jōkō (上皇); the reigning emperor, Naruhito (徳仁), is for this purpose referred to as kinjō (今上).

The "official" tally of emperors follows the Southern Court line during the Northern and Southern Courts period (1336-1392). Thus, the six emperors of the Northern Court during this period are listed here as N1-N6 (the portion of Go-Komatsu's reign until 1392, when the courts were reunified, is also excluded from the official count).

Note: Female tennō are indicated by a red font.

No. Name Jpnse. Dates
1 Jinmu 神武 660-585 BCE
2 Suizei 綏靖 581-549 BCE
3 Annei 安寧 549-511 BCE
4 Itoku 懿徳 510-477 BCE
5 Kōshō 孝昭 475-393 BCE
6 Kōan 孝安 392-291 BCE
7 Kōrei 孝霊 290-215 BCE
8 Kōgen 孝元 214-158 BCE
9 Kaika 開化 158-98 BCE
10 Sujin 崇神 97-30 BCE
11 Suinin 垂仁 29 BCE - 70 CE
12 Keikō 景行 71-130
13 Seimu 成務 131-190
14 Chūai 仲哀 192-200
15 Ōjin 応神 270-310
16 Nintoku 仁徳 313-399
17 Richū 履中 400-405
18 Hanzei 反正 406-410
19 Ingyō 允恭 412-453
20 Ankō 安康 453-456
21 Yūryaku 雄略 456-479
22 Seinei 清寧 480-484
23 Kenzō 顕宗 485-487
24 Ninken 仁賢 488-498
25 Buretsu 武烈 498-506
26 Keitai 継体 507-531
27 Ankan 安閑 531-535
28 Senka 宣化 535–539
29 Kinmei 欽明 539–571
30 Bidatsu 敏達 572–585
31 Yōmei 用明 585–587
32 Sushun 崇峻 587–592
33 Suiko 推古 592–628
34 Jomei 舒明 629–641
35 Kōgyoku 皇極 642–645
36 Kōtoku 孝徳 645–654
37 Saimei 斉明 655–661
38 Tenji 天智 661–672
39 Kōbun 弘文 671-672
40 Tenmu 天武 673-686
41 Jitō 持統 690-697
42 Monmu 文武 697-707
43 Genmei 元明 707-715
44 Genshō 元正 715-724
45 Shōmu 聖武 724-749
46 Kōken 孝謙 749-758
47 Junnin 淳仁 758-764
48 Shōtoku 称徳 764-770
49 Kōnin 光仁 770-781
50 Kanmu 桓武 781-806
51 Heizei 平城 806-809
52 Saga 嵯峨 809-823
53 Junna 淳和 823-833
54 Ninmyō 仁明 833-850
55 Montoku 文徳 850-858
56 Seiwa 清和 858-876
57 Yōzei 陽成 876-884
58 Kōkō 光孝 884-887
59 Uda 宇多 887-897
60 Daigo 醍醐 897-930
61 Suzaku 朱雀 930-946
62 Murakami 村上 946-967
63 Reizei 冷泉 967-969
64 En'yū 円融 969-984
65 Kazan 花山 984-986
66 Ichijō 一条 986-1011
67 Sanjō 三条 1011-1016
68 Go-Ichijō 後一条 1016-1036
69 Go-Suzaku 後朱雀 1036-1045
70 Go-Reizei 後冷泉 10445-1068
71 Go-Sanjō 後三条 1068-1072
72 Shirakawa 白河 1072-1086
73 Horikawa 堀河 1086-1107
74 Toba 鳥羽 1107-1123
75 Sutoku 崇徳 1123-1141
76 Konoe 近衛 1141-1155
77 Go-Shirakawa 後白河 1155-1158
78 Nijō 二条 1158-1165
79 Rokujō 六条 1165-1168
80 Takakura 高倉 1168-1180
81 Antoku 安徳 1180-1185
82 Go-Toba 後鳥羽 1183-1198
83 Tsuchimikado 土御門 1198-1210
84 Juntoku 順徳 1210-1221
85 Chūkyō 仲恭 1121
86 Go-Horikawa 後堀河 1221-1232
87 Shijō 四条 1232-1242
88 Go-Saga 後嵯峨 1242-1246
89 Go-Fukakusa 後深草 1246-1259
90 Kameyama 亀山 1259-1274
91 Go-Uda 後宇多 1274-1287
92 Fushimi 伏見 1287-1298
93 Go-Fushimi 後伏見 1298-1301
94 Go-Nijō 後二条 1301-1308
95 Hanazono 花園 1308-1318
96 Go-Daigo 後醍醐 1318-1339
97 Go-Murakami 後村上 1339-1368
98 Chōkei 長慶 1368-1383
99 Go-Kameyama 後亀山 1383-1392
N1 Kōgon 光厳 1331-1333
N2 Kōmyō 光明 1336-1348
N3 Sukō 崇光 1348-1351
N4 Go-Kōgon 後光厳 1352-1371
N5 Go-En'yū 後円融 1371-1382
N6 Go-Komatsu 後小松 1382-1412
100 Go-Komatsu 後小松 1392-1412
101 Shōkō 称光 1412-1428
102 Go-Hanazono 後花園 1428-1464
103 Go-Tsuchimikado 後土御門 1464-1500
104 Go-Kashiwabara 後柏原 1500-1526
105 Go-Nara 後奈良 1526-1557
106 Ōgimachi 正親町 1557-1586
107 Go-Yōzei 後陽成 1586-1611
108 Go-Mizunoo 後水尾 1611-1629
109 Meishō 明正 1629-1643
110 Go-Kōmyō 後光明 1643-1654
111 Go-Sai 後西 1654-1663
112 Reigen 霊元 1663-1687
113 Higashiyama 東山 1687-1709
114 Nakamikado 中御門 1709-1735
115 Sakuramachi 桜町 1735-1747
116 Momozono 桃園 1747-1762
117 Go-Sakuramachi 後桜町 1762-1770
118 Go-Momozono 後桃園 1770-1779
119 Kōkaku 光格 1779-1817
120 Ninkō 仁孝 1817-1846
121 Kōmei 孝明 1846-1866
122 Meiji 明治 1867-1912
123 Taishō 大正 1912-1926
124 Shōwa 昭和 1926-1989
125 Jōkō (Akihito; Heisei) 上皇(明仁; 平成) 1989-2019
126 Kinjō (Naruhito; Reiwa) 今上(徳仁; 令和) 2019-