Biographies of modern writers

Short biographies of modern writers, with more detailed accounts in some cases. Where extra information has been provided, it is classified in up to four categories: life, translations, studies (mostly book-length or chapter-length in size), and online links.

Although personal judgments are incorporated, much of the content is culled from such common, useful, and inexpensive reference sources as Shakaijin no tame no kokugo hyakka (Encyclopedia of the Japanese Language for Working Adults, published by Taishūkan Shoten), Shin shōsetsu kokugo benran (Illustrated Handbook of the Japanese Language, Newly Revised and Updated, published by Tōkyō Shoseki), and -- yes -- the Japanese version of Wikipedia. Shinchō Nihon-bungaku jiten has occasionally been consulted for purposes of verification and amplification.


Takagi Nobuko (b. April 9, 1946)

Real name Tsuruta Nobuko. Novelist born in Yamaguchi Prefecture. She made her literary debut in 1980 with Sono hosoki michi (That Narrow Road), which portrays the love of a college woman in the provinces. This and the stories Tōsugiru tomo (A Distant Friend, 1981) and Oikaze (A Following Wind, 1982) were nominated for the Akutagawa Prize, which Takagi finally won in 1983 for Hikari idaku tomo yo (To a Friend Embracing the Light), the sensitive depiction of a high school girl’s descent into delinquency. Takagi's main interest lies in exploring the themes of romantic love and interpersonal relationships within a society that is growing increasingly complex. Other major works include Ginga no shizuku (Drops Falling from the Milky Way, 1993) and Tsuta moe (The Burning Vine, 1994).

Tamura Ryūichi (March 18, 1923 - August 26, 1998)

Member of the postwar Arechi (Wasteland) group of poets. Known for an abstract style of poetry that located spiritual salvation in the contemplation of destruction and a heightened awareness of the presence of death.

Tanikawa Shuntarō (b. December 15, 1931)

Poet born in Tokyo. His father was the philosopher Tanikawa Tetsuzō. When Tanikawa refused to enter college after graduating from high school, his father took some of the poems he had written to show Miyoshi Tatsuji, who in 1950 recommended them for publication in the journal Bungakukai (The World of Literature) under the heading "Nero and Four Other Poems." This marked Tanikawa’s literary debut. His straightforward style and fresh sensibility soon put him at the forefront of young postwar poets. Major anthologies of the immediate postwar period include Nijūoku kōnen no kodoku (Two Billion Light-Years of Solitude, 1952) and Rokujūni no sonetto (Sixty-two Sonnets, 1953). Beginning in the late 1950s Tanikawa extended his range of activities to include dramas, essays, and screenplays. Among his later anthologies are Utsumuku shōnen (Downcast Youth, 1971) and Hibi no chizu (A Map of Days, 1983).

Tanemura Suehiro (March 21, 1933 - August 29, 2004)

Literary critic and scholar of German literature. Born in Tokyo. Graduate of the Department of German Literature, University of Tokyo. Known for his incisive and wide-ranging studies of European fantasy, deviation, and nonsense-literature. Tanemura also applied the results of these investigations to his readings of Japanese literature.

Terayama Shūji (December 10, 1935 - May 4, 1983)

Poet , dramatist, and essayist born in Hirosaki, Aomori Prefecture. Showed precocious talent as a composer of Western-style poetry and tanka while still a student at Aomori High School. In 1954, after entering Waseda University, he published a collection of 50 tanka titled Chehofu sai (The Chekov Festival) that won a prize for new tanka poets awarded by the magazine Tanka kenkyū (Studies in Tanka). His light, rhythmical style underwent a change beginning with the collection Chi to mugi (Blood and Wheat, 1962), which shows a growing interest in regional customs and focuses mainly on dark motifs of pathos and resentment. Criticism includes the collection of essays Sho o suteyo, machi ni deyo (Throw Away the Books and Go Out into Town, 1967). Terayama’s work has recently been reappraised as a constituting an effective avant-garde response to the negative view of modern tanka taken by Kuwabara Takeo.

Tawada Yōko (b. March 23, 1960)

Novelist born in Tokyo. Graduated from Waseda University, majoring in Russian literature, then took an MA at Hamburg University, Germany, where she studied contemporary German literature. Her stories include Kakato o nakushite (Missing Heels, 1991), which won the Gunzō Prize for New Writers, and Inu muko iri (The Bridegroom Was a Dog, 1992), which was awarded the 108th Akutagawa Prize. In 1996 Tawada received the Adelbert von Chamisso Prize, a German award given to foreign writers in recognition of their contribution to German culture. She has also received the Prize in Literature from the City of Hamburg (1990) and the Lessing Prize (1994). In 1999 Tawada became Max Kade Distinguished Visitor and writer-in-residence in the Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Most of her writing is characterized by a strategic awkwardness reflecting a wish to identify a cultural gap and fill it with the creative use of language, even though the result may give the impression of being a clumsy “stammer.”

Toki Zenmaro (June 8, 1885 - April 15, 1980)

Tanka poet born in Tokyo who wrote under the pen name Toki Aika. He studied English literature at Waseda University, where he was in the same year as Kitahara Hakushū and Wakayama Bokusui, both of whom became famous tanka poets. Toki was also friends with Ishikawa Takuboku, and under his influence began to write tanka. In 1910 he published a collection of tanka (all in three-line romanization) called NAKIWARAI (A Tearful Smile,1910). He published such collections of tanka on everyday life as Tasogare ni (At Twilight,1912) and Sora wo aogu (Gazing at the Sky, 1925). He also published such collections of free-form tanka as Sakuhin 1 (Works 1, 1933) and a collection of antiwar tanka titled Rokugatsu (June, 1940). After World War II he continued to write tanka that stressed the value of spiritual freedom.

Tokuda Shūsei (December 23, 1871 - November 18, 1943)

Novelist born in the city of Kanazawa, Ishikawa Prefecture. He left the Fourth High School to become a disciple of the novelist Ozaki Kōyō, supporting himself by working at a publishing company and a newspaper. After Kōyō’s death, Tokuda established a reputation as a Naturalist writer with the publication of Arajotai (A New Family, 1908), which was based on his own life. He continued to write in the same autobiographical vein, publishing such works as Kabi (Mold, 1911), Tadare (Putrescence, 1913), Kasō jinbutsu (Incognito, 1935), and Shukuzu (A Scale Reproduction, 1941).

Tsuji Hitonari (b. October 4, 1959)

Novelist and musician born in Tokyo, later moving to Fukuoka City, Kyushu, and Hakodate in Hokkaido. He dropped out of college to devote himself to performing with his rock band, and also started writing fiction. Pianishimo (Pianissimo) received the 13th Subaru Literature Award in 1989. Subsequent works include Kuraudi (Cloudy, 1989), Haha naru nagi to chichi naru shike (Motherly Calm, Fatherly Storm, 1993) and Passajio (Passagio, 1994). In 1996 he received the 116th Akutagawa Prize for Kaikyō no hikari (Lights in the Channel) about the impressionable young men detained in the Hakodate juvenile jail. As a musician, Tsuji goes by the Sinified reading of his first name, "Jinsei"; he uses "Hitonari" in his novelist persona.

Tsuji Kunio (September 24, 1925 - July 29, 1999)

Novelist born in Tokyo; graduate of the French department of Tokyo University. The three years he spent in France between 1957 and 1960 had a decisive influence on his vision of the possibilities of literature, and in 1963 he made his debut with Kairō nite (In the Corridor), which was awarded the Prize for Modern Literature. In general, Tsuji's works were informed by an idealism directed at a higher plane of spiritual existence, and he produced a number of historical novels in which the protagonists search for the essential meaning of life at times of great social change. These novels include Azuchi ōkanki (1968, translated as The Signore), winner of a Ministry of Education Commendation in the Arts for New Artists, and Haikyōsha Yurianusu (The Apostate Julianus, 1972), winner of a Mainichi Award for Art.

Tsuchiya Bummei (September 18, 1890 - December 10, 1990)

Waka poet born in Gumma Prefecture; graduated from Tokyo University, where he majored in philosophy. After studying waka under Itō Sachio, he helped edit the magazine Araragi with Saitō Mokichi. His tanka typically deal with the inner workings of people’s everyday lives. Collections include Fuyukusa (Winter Grass, 1925), ōkanshū (Returns, 1930), and Sankokushū (Mountains and Valleys, 1935). Critical works include Manyōshū shichū (Personal Notes on the Man'yōshū, 1943).

Tsutsui Yasutaka (b. September 24, 1934)

Novelist born in Osaka. Graduated from the Department of Literature at Dōshisha University. He made his literary debut with the science-fiction story Otasuke (A Helping Hand, 1960), which was praised by the mystery writer Edogawa Ranpo. This was followed by such experimental works of science fiction as Kyokō sendan (The Fictitious Flotilla, 1984) and Yumenoki-zaka bunkiten (Fork in the Road on Yumenoki Hill, 1987). Tsutsui has also produced a number of satirical works critical of aspects of modern society, among them Bungakubu Tadano kyōju (Professor Tadano of the Literature Department, 1990).

Umesao Tadao (June 13, 1920 - July 3, 2010)

Critic born in Kyoto who graduated from the Department of Animal Ecology, Kyoto University. He has done extensive field work in such areas as Afghanistan and Southeast Asia. His book Bunmei no seitaishi-kan (An Ecological View of the History of Civilization, 1967) attempted to "correct" the standard formula opposing East and West by dividing the world into two regions: one consisting of Japan and the West, and the other everywhere else. Other books include Chitekiseisan no gijutsu (The Technology of Intellectual Production, 1969), Nihon bunmei nanajūnana no kagi (Seventy-seven Keys to Japanese Civilization, 1988), and Kindai sekai ni okeru Nihon bunmei (Japanese Civilization in the Modern World, 2000).

Umezaki Haruo (February 15, 1915 - July 19, 1965)

Novelist born in Fukuoka Prefecture; a graduate of Tokyo University. His experience in the Japanese navy formed the basis for such early works as Sakurajima (1946) and Hi no hate (The End of the Day, 1947). Umezaki excelled in depicting human psychology with a light touch, as is evident in the stories Boroya no shunjū (Seasons Spent in a Ramshackle House, 1954), Kuruidako (The Crazy Kite, 1963), and Genka (Hallucinations, 1965).

Urasawa Naoki (b. January 2, 1960)

Manga artist. A native of Tokyo who graduated from Meisei University in economics. Debuted with BETA!! in 1983, winning support for Western-style draftsmanship and skillful plotting. The immensely popular YAWARA! series won the Shōgakukan Manga Prize in 1990. MONSTER was awarded the Tezuka Osamu Cultural Prize in 1999.

Yamada Eimi (Amy) (b. February 8, 1959)

Real last name, Futaba. Novelist born in Tokyo. As a girl, her father’s job forced her family to move all around the country. She joined her high schools’s literature club and there began reading foreign writers. Yamada entered the Japanese literature department at Meiji University in 1977, and belonged to a club that studied manga. After dropping out of college, she worked for a time as a cartoonist. But dissatisfied with the expressive range available to her in comics, beginning in about 1980 she started writing novels. In 1985, Beddo taimu aizu (Bedtime Eyes), with its fresh depiction of the relationship between love and sex, won the Kawade Literary Prize and was also nominated for the Akutagawa Prize. In 1987, Yamada received the Naoki Prize for the short story Soul Music, Lovers Only. Works like Yubi no tawamure (Finger Play, 1986), Harlem World (1987), and Trash (1991) all focus on the central theme of physical love between men and women in the context of modern social mores and practices. Other works of Yamada’s have given expression to the delicate sensibilities of adolescents. Among these are Jeshii no sebone (Jessie’s Spine, 1986), Chō-cho no tensoku (Binding the Butterfly’s Feet, 1987) -- based on Yamada’s own experience as a perennial transfer student -- and Fūsō no kyōshitsu (Classroom for the Abandoned Dead, 1988), which deals with the subject of bullying. Collections of stories include Hōkago no kiinooto (After-School Keynote, 1989).

Yamakawa Masao (February 25, 1930 - February 20, 1965)

Novelist born in Tokyo; editor of the third series of the literary journal Mita bungaku (Mita Literature). Yamakawa first gained critical attention in 1957 with Hibi no shi (Death in Everyday Life). He is known for portraying the anxiety of modern youth with an urbane, sharp-witted sensibility. Representative works are Kaigan kōen (Seaside Park, 1964) and Ai no gotoku (Like Love, 1964). Yamakawa’s life was cut tragically short by a traffic accident.

Yamamoto Kenkichi (April 26, 1907 - May 7, 1988)

Critic born in Nagasaki whose real name was Ishihashi Sadakichi. After graduating from Keio University, where he studied under Orikuchi Nobuo, he joined the editorial staff of the journal Haiku kenkyū (The Study of Haiku). Beginning in 1939 he published a series of studies titled Watakushi-shishōsetsu sakka ron (On Writers of I-Novels) in the coterie magazine Hihyō (Criticism). His Koten to gendai bungaku (Classical and Modern Literature, 1955) is an analysis of the full range of Japanese literary history arguing that modern literature suffers from the attenuation of the common cultural bonds that joined Japanese artists up to the time of the Meiji period. Other works include Shōsetsu no saihakken (The Rediscovery of Fiction,1962), Shi no jikaku no rekishi (The History of Poetic Self-Awareness,1979), and Inochi to katachi (Life and Form,1981). Yamamoto was awarded the Order of Culture in 1983.

Yamamoto Shūgorō (June 22, 1903 - February 14, 1967)

Novelist born in Yamanashi Prefecture who depicted with uncompromising honesty the joys and sorrows of ordinary people. His many works include Nihon fudōki (The True Path of the Japanese Woman, 1943), Akahige shinryō tan (The Doctor with the Red Beard, 1958), Tenchi seidai (The Great Silence of Heaven and Earth, 1959), Momi no ki wa nokkota (The Fir Tree Remained Standing, 1958), Aokabe monogatari (The Tale of the Blue Wall, 1960), Kisetsu no nai machi (The Town with No Seasons, 1962), Nagai saka (The Long Slope, 1964), and the uncompleted Ogosoka na kawaki (A Solemn Thirst, 1967). Throughout his career, Yamamoto refused to accept the Naoki Prize or, indeed, any other literary prize.

Yamamoto Yūzō (July 27, 1887 - January 11, 1974)

Novelist from Tochigi Prefecture; member along with Akutagawa Ryūnosuke of the coterie group that published the magazine Shin shichō (New Currents in Thought). As a playwright, he published Seimei no kanmuri (The Crown of Life, 1920), Eijigoroshi (Infanticide, 1920), and Dōshi no hitobito (Comrades, 1923). His novels include Nami (Waves, 1928), Onna no isshō (The Life of a Woman, 1932), Shinjitsu ichiro (The Truth Is the Only Thing I Need, 1935), and Robō no ishi (A Stone on the Wayside, 1937). His works in both categories deal with the theme of human beings searching for the meaning of life while caught in the conflict between reality and the ideal.

Yamanoguchi Baku (September 11, 1903 - July 19, 1963)

Poet born in Okinawa Prefecture. A dropout from the First Okinawa Prefectural High School, he traveled to Tokyo in 1923, returning once to Okinawa and then going back to Tokyo again. Drifting from one job to another, he began associating with such writers as Satō Haruo and Kaneko Mitsuharu while writing poetry. In 1938 he published his first anthology, Shiben no sono (Garden of Speculation), which won him widespread admiration for its appealing, self-deprecating humor. Increasingly concerned over the occupation of Okinawa by the United States, Yamanoguchi published such poems as Okinawa yo doko e iku (Okinawa, Where Are You Going?, 1958). He continued to hope for some kind of harmony to be established in the troubled relationship between mainland Japan and Okinawa. He was welcomed warmly when he visited Okinawa in 1958, but he had decidedly mixed feelings about the way his homeland was being assimilated into mainland culture. His posthumous Maguro ni iwashi (Tuna and Sardines, 1964) includes poetry based on the Bikini H-bomb test.

Yasuoka Shōtarō (May 30, 1920 - January 26, 2013)

During Yasuoka’s childhood, his father, an army veterinarian, was transferred frequently, giving the family an unsettled existence and causing Yasuoka to develop a distaste for schooling. Yasuoka failed miserably in college entrance exams for three years, finally winning admission to Keio University in 1941.There he fell under the spell of the so-called Aesthetic School (Tanbi-ha) of Japanese authors, modeling his own lifestyle on theirs. This period of his life became the basis for his later novel Warui nakama (Bad Company, 1953).

Yasuoka was conscripted in 1944 and briefly served overseas, but was sent home after developing tuberculosis. After the war, he began to write fiction while suffering from spinal caries. His short story Garasu no kutsu (The Glass Slipper) made a strong impact on the Japanese literary world when it was published in 1951. Yasuoka was awarded the Akutagawa Prize on the basis of Inki na tanoshimi (A Melancholy Pleasure, 1953) and Warui nakama (Bad Company, 1953), both of which draw heavily on Yasuoka’s own experience to depict the slightly perverse personality of the youthful narrator.  This concern with concrete everyday life created a break with the gloomily abstract concerns of previous writers, earning Yasuoka (along with such other writers as Kojima Nobuo, Endō Shūsaku, and Shōno Junzō) the appellation Dai-san no Shinjin ("Third Generation of New Writers").

Yasuoka developed an autobiographically oriented style which he used to portray society from the standpoint of an “underachiever” (rettōsei), taking the side of the underdog to lay bare falsehood and hypocrisy. Kaihen no kōkei (A View by the Sea, 1959), dealing with the death of Yasuoka’s mother in a mental hospital, received the Noma Literary Prize; Maku ga orite kara (After the Curtain Fell, 1967) won the Mainichi Cultural Prize. Yasuoka’s other writings have ranged widely, from Amerika kanjō ryokō (A Sentimental Journey through America, 1962), which turns out to be much more than a simple travel journal; to such critical works as Shiga Naoya shiron (A Private Reading of Shiga Naoya, 1968); to Ryūritan (A Tale of Wanderers, 1981), which traces the Yasuoka family tree back to the end of the Edo period. Recent award-winning works include Hate mo nai dōchūki (The Never-ending Traveler’s Journal, 1996, Yomiuri Literary Prize) and Kagamigawa (The Kagami River, 2000, Osaragi Jirō Prize).

The date given for Yasuoka's birth is the one that appears in his family register. The Japanese Wikipedia quotes a source in which Yasuoka puts his own actual date of birth at April 17 or 18.

  • A View by the Sea. Trans. Kären Wigen Lewis. 1984. New York: Columbia University Press, 1992. Contains six short stories.
  • "Bad Company." Trans. Kären Wigen Lewis. In The Showa Anthology, ed. Van C. Gessel and Tomone Matsumoto, Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1985. A lighly revised version of the translation in the collection above.
  • "My Uncle's Graveyard." Trans. Mark Jewel. Japanese Literature Today, 17:5-13 (1992). A short story in a periodical, but well worth reading.
  • "Prized Possessions." Trans. Edwin McClellan. In Contemporary Japanese Literature, ed. Howard Hibbett, New York: Knopf, 1977.
  • The Glass Slipper and Other Stories. Trans. Royall Tyler. Champaign, IL: Dalkey Archive Press, 2008.

Gessel, Van C. The Sting of Life: Four Contemporary Japanese Novelists. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989. Contains a chapter on Yasuoka.

No links currently available.

Yokomizo Seishi (May 25, 1902 - December 28, 1981)

Novelist born in Kobe. Read detective stories as a boy and in 1921, while employed by the Daiichi Bank, published his first story in the magazine Shin Seinen (New Youth). He turned to making and selling medicine for a living until 1926, when he joined the publishing company Hakubunkan as an editor. Yokomizo left Hakubunkan in 1932 to write full-time. After World War II, he raised the level of detective fiction in Japan to Western standards of craftsmanship. By the 1970s, success in both print and other media had made the name of Kindaichi Kōsuke, Yokomizo's master detective and the hero of hundreds of stories, one of the most recognizable in the country.

Yoshii Isamu (October 8, 1886 - November 19, 1960)

Tanka poet born in Tokyo who left the School of Political Science and Economics at Waseda University without graduating. In 1908 he organized the Pan no Kai (Pan Society) with Kitahara Hakushū, then in 1909, along with Ishikawa Takuboku, founded the magazine Subaru (The Pleiades), making it into the stronghold of the group of poets often referred to as the Tanbi-ha (Aesthetes). Yoshii become famous almost overnight for the hedonistic collection Sakahogai (Revelry,1910), and he continued in the same stylistic vein for the rest of his career. Other works include Gion kashū (The Gion Collection, 1915) and Tokyo kōtō shū (Collection from the Tokyo Red-Light District, 1916).

Yoshimoto Banana (b. July 24, 1964)

Novelist born as Yoshimoto Mahoko in Tokyo. She is the second daughter of the critic Yoshimoto Takaaki. Her unique pen name comes from her love for the flowers of the banana tree. Yoshimoto aimed at becoming a novelist from childhood, and during her last year at Nihon University, she received an award from the dean of the literature department for her graduation project, the story Moonlight Shadow. In 1987 Yoshimoto’s first novel, Kitchen, won both the Kaisen Prize for New Writers and the Izumi Kyōka Prize, and eventually it became a worldwide best-seller. Yoshimoto has written many novels, short stories, and essays. Novels include Utakata (Evanescence, 1988), Sanctuary (1988), Kanashii yokan (A Sad Premonition, 1988), TUGUMI (Goodbye Tsugumi, 1989), N・P (N.P.: A Novel, 1990), Amurita (Amrita, 1994), SLY (1996), Furin to Nanbei (Adultery and South America, 2000), and Hagoromo (The Feathered Cloak, 2003). She has also written short stories like Shirakawa yofune (A Deep Sleep, 1989), Tokage (Lizard, 1993), and Karada wa zenbu shitte iru (The Body Knows Everything, 2000). Yoshimoto’s dry, modern sensibility -- together with the fantasy-like settings of her stories -- creates a vivid impression that has won her a large following, especially among young women the same age as the heroines of her stories. These heroines have in common the strength to overcome the loneliness and harshness of life and develop a sense of hope for the future.

Yoshino Hideo (July 3, 1902 - July 13, 1967)

Tanka poet born in Gunma Prefecture. After leaving the Department of Economics at Keio University without a degree, he studied under Aizu Yaichi. Following his teacher's example, Yoshino kept his distance from circles of professional tanka poets throughout his career. He admired Ryōkan and composed poetry with an everyday human touch in the Man'yō style. Collections include Seiin shū (The Clear and Cloudy Collection, 1967) and Kansen shū (The Autumn Cicada Collection, 1974).

Yoshino Hiroshi (January 16, 1926 - January 15, 2014)

Poet born in Yamagata Prefecture. After graduating from Sakata Commercial School in 1942, he started work at an oil company. He decided to join the army, but five days before his scheduled enlistment Japan surrendered. After the war he became involved in the trade-union movement, but fell ill with tuberculosis in 1949 and began writing poetry while undergoing medical treatment. In 1953 he joined the journal Kai (Paddle); his first anthology, Shōsoku (News), was published in 1957. In 1971 the anthology Kanshō ryokō (Sentimental Journey) received the Yomiuri Prize for Literature. Yoshino’s understated style is characterized by a critical attitude toward society combined with a warmth that comes from a deep understanding of what it means to be human. Other major works include the anthology Maboroshi / hōhō (Illusion / Method, 1959) and Hi o abite (Under the Rays of the Sun, 1983).

Yoshiyuki Junnosuke (April 13, 1924 - July 26, 1994)

Novelist born in Okayama Prefecture as the first son of Yoshiyuki Eisuke, a writer of the Shinkō Geijutsu (New Art) School. In 1945, he enrolled in the department of English literature at Tokyo University, working at part-time jobs to support himself. As a student he became absorbed in poetry and helped publish a coterie magazines. Opposed to the ideologically centered literature being written during the Second World War, Yoshiyuki kept his distance from the writers who came to be known as the Postwar School (Sengo-ha). In 1955, he received the Akutagawa Prize for Shūu (Downpour), which deals with the psychological problems faced by a young man attempting to make a clear distinction between the emotions of love and pleasure. This marked Yoshiyuki’s emergence as a professional novelist, and he was soon classified as one of the “Third Wave” of new writers (Dai-san no shinjin) who turned their attention to the portrayal of the ordinary individual in everyday life. Subsequent works include Shōfu no heya (A Prostitute’s Room, 1958), Suna no ue no shokubutsugun (Vegetation on the Sand, 1963), Hoshi to tsuki wa ten no ana (The Stars and the Moon Are Holes in the Sky, 1966), and Anshitsu (The Dark Room, 1969). These works all depict human sexuality in a way that makes it seem almost indistinguishable from death. Yoshiyuki’s style can be described as a experimental restructuring of the traditional Japanese I-novel (shishōsetsu) carried out with a penetrating yet delicate sensibility that results in remembered images of great clarity. Additional works include Honoo no naka (In the Flames, 1974), Yami no naka no sairei (Festival in the Dark, 1961), Shindai no fune (The Bed-Frame Boat, 1977), Kaban no nakami (The Contents of My Briefcase, 1974), and Yūgure made (Until Nightfall, 1978).