Japanese era and modern reign names
The following table is meant as a quick guideline to Japanese era names since 645 CE. Dates are provided down to the month (lunar months up to the end of 1872); the precise dates would be different under the Gregorian calendar.
It should be remembered that modern reigns end and begin in the same year, so that one calendar year may contain both the last year of the old reign and the first year of the new reign. The Shōwa Emperor, for example, died on January 7, 1989, meaning that 1989 was both Shōwa 64 and Heisei 1, with the latter starting from January 8, the day after the emperor's death. The very rough listing of historical events relies heavily on the chronologies in The Cambridge History of Japan, although in some cases preference has been given to current Japanese sources. Corrections to mistakenly entered data will be gratefully received at .
Note: Intercalary months are indicated by an asterisk.
|645.6 - 650.2||Taika||大化||645 Taika (Great) Reform(s); capital moved to Naniwa.|
|650.2 - 654.10||Hakuchi (Hakuhō)||白雉
|The period can be referred to as either Hakuchi or Hakuhō, occupying the latter half of the reign of Emperor Kōtoku (r. 645-654). Hakuhō (originally an elegant alternative to Hakuchi) was also apparently used intermittently as an unofficial era name (shi-nengō) until 686. The Hakuhō period in art generally, although not always, refers to the years between the Taika Reform of 645 and the establishment of the capital in Nara in 710.|
|654.10 - 686.7||(Hakuhō)||（白鳳）||No official era name exists for this period, although "Hakuhō" seems to have been used occasionally on an unofficial basis. The Hakuchi/Hakuhō ambiguity is further compounded by scholars who contend that "Hakuhō" refers to a period (661-683) under the "Kyūshū court" as postulated by Yoshida Takehiko.
667 Capital moved to Ōtsu in Ōmi Province.
|686.7 - 686.9||Shuchō||朱鳥||The era officially ended with the death of Emperor Tenmu in 686, but the name continued in unofficial use through the reign of Empress Jitō (r. 690-97).
694 Capital moved to Fujiwara in Yamato Province.
|701.3 - 704.5||Taihō||大宝||701 Taihō ritsuryō penal and civil codes promulgated.|
|704.5 - 708.1||Keiun||慶雲|
(710 - 794)
|708.1 - 715.9||Wadō||和銅||710 Capital moved to Heijō-kyō (Nara).
712 Kojiki completed by Ō no Yasumaro.
|715.9 - 717.11||Reiki||霊亀|
|717.11 - 724.2||Yōrō||養老||718 Yōrō penal and civil codes compiled.
720 Nihon shoki completed.
|724.2 - 729.8||Jinki||神亀|
|729.8 - 749.4||Tenpyō||天平|
|749.4 - 749.7||Tenpyō Kanpō||天平感宝|
|749.7 - 757.8||Tenpyō Shōhō||天平勝宝||752 Great Buddha of Tōdaiji completed.
754 Priest Ganjin arrives from China.
756 Shōsōin constructed.
|757.8 - 765.1||Tenpyō
|天平宝字||759 Last dated poem of the Man'yōshū.
764 Revolt of Fujiwara no Nakamaro crushed.
|765.1 - 767.8||Tenpyō Shingo||天平神護|
|767.8 - 770.9||Jingo Keiun||神護景雲|
|770.10 - 780.12||Hōki||宝亀||770 Priest Dōkyō exiled.|
|781.1 - 782.8||Ten'ō||天応|
(794 - 1185)
|782.8 - 806.5||Enryaku||延暦||784 Capital moved to Nagaoka.
788 Priest Saichō builds Enryakuji.
794 Capital moved to Heian-kyō (Kyoto).
|806.5 - 810.9||Daidō||大同|
|810.9 - 824.1||Kōnin||弘仁||811 Emishi defeated after thirty years of conflict.
816 Priest Kūkai established Kongōbuji on Mount Kōya.
|824.1 - 834.1||Tenchō||天長||832 Priest Kūkai establishes a Shingon chapel inside the imperial palace.|
|834.1 - 848.6||Jōwa||承和||838 Last official embassy to Tang China.
847 Priest Ennin returns from China, introducing Tendai and Mikkyō (esoteric Buddhism) practices.
|848.6 - 851.4||Kashō||嘉祥|
|851.4 - 854.11||Ninju||仁寿|
|854.11 - 857.2||Saikō||斉衡|
|857.2 - 859.4||Tennan||天安|
|859.4 - 877.4||Jōgan||貞観||866 Fujiwara no Yoshifusa becomes the first person not of imperial birth to receive the title of regent (sesshō).|
|877.4 - 885.2||Gangyō||元慶|
|885.2 - 889.4||Ninna||仁和|
|889.4 - 898.4||Kanpei||寛平||894 Plan to send an embassy to Tang China is canceled.|
|898.4 - 901.7||Shōtai||昌泰|
|901.7 - 923.4*||Engi||延喜||901 Nihon sandai jitsuroku, last of the Six National Histories, completed.
905 Kokinshū compiled.
|923.4* - 931.4||Enchō||延長|
|931.4 - 938.5||Jōhei
|丞平||935 Jōhei-Tengyō Disturbance begins.|
|937.5 - 947.4||Tengyō||天慶||939-40 Rebellion by Taira no Masakado
941 Fujiwara no Tadahira is appointed kanpaku, a title henceforth used for regents of adult emperors.
|947.4 - 957.10||Tenryaku||天暦|
|957.10 - 961.2||Tentoku||天徳|
|961.2 - 964.7||Ōwa||応和|
|964.7 - 968.8||Kōhō||康保|
|968.8 - 970.3||Anna||安和|
|970.3 - 973.12||Tenroku||天禄|
|973.12 - 976.7||Ten'en||天延|
|976.7 - 978.11||Jōgen||貞元|
|978.11 - 983.4||Tengen||天元|
|983.4 - 985.4||Eikan||永観|
|985.4 - 987.4||Kanwa||寛和||985 Priest Genshin writes Ōjō yōshū (The Essentials of Rebirth in the Pure Land).|
|987.4 - 989.8||Eien||永延|
|989.8 - 990.11||Eiso||永祚|
|990.11 - 995.2||Shōryaku||正暦|
|995.2 - 999.1||Chōtoku||長徳||995 Fujiwara no Michinaga becomes nairan ("private inspector"), cementing his control over the court; until 1027, the height of Fujiwara influence.|
|999.1 - 1004.7||Chōho||長保||Makura no sōshi (The Pillow Book) by Sei Shōnagon largely completed by this time.|
|1004.7 - 1012.12||Kankō||寛弘||Genji monogatari (The Tale of Genji) by Murasaki Shikibu completed about this time.|
|1012.12 - 1017.4||Chōwa||長和|
|1017.4 - 1021.2||Kan'in||寛仁|
|1021.2 - 1024.7||Jian||治安|
|1024.7 - 1028.7||Manju||万寿|
|1028.7 - 1037.4||Chōgen||長元||1028 Revolt of Taira no Tadatsune (surrenders to Minamoto no Yorinobu in 1031).|
|1037.4 - 1040.11||Chōryaku||長暦|
|1040.11 - 1044.11||Chōkyū||長久|
|1044.11 - 1046.4||Kantoku||寛徳|
|1046.4 - 1053.1||Eishō||永承||1051 Beginning of the Earlier Nine Years' War under Minamoto no Yoriyoshi.|
|1053.1 - 1058.8||Tenki||天喜||1053 Hōōdō (Phoenix Hall) constructed at the Byōdōin by Minamoto no Yorimichi.|
|1058.8 - 1065.8||Kōhei||康平||1063 Yoriyoshi secretly builds shrine dedicated to Hachiman in Sagami Province.|
|1065.8 - 1069.4||Jiryaku||治暦||1068 Emperor Go-Sanjō becomes the first emperor in 170 years whose mother is not a Fujiwara.|
|1069.4 - 1074.8||Enkyū||延久|
|1074.8 - 1077.11||Shōhō||承保|
|1077.11 - 1081.2||Shōryaku||承暦|
|1081.2 - 1084.2||Eiho||永保|
|1084.2 - 1087.2||Ōtoku||応徳||1086 Emperor Shirakawa abdicates and establishes his Senior Retired Emperor's Office (In-no-chō).|
|1087.2 - 1094.12||Kanji||寛治|
|1094.12 - 1096.12||Kahō||嘉保|
|1096.12 - 1097.11||Eichō||永長|
|1097.11 - 1099.8||Shōtoku||承徳|
|1099.8 - 1104.2||Kōwa||康和|
|1104.2 - 1106.4||Chōji||長治|
|1106.4 - 1108.8||Kashō||嘉承|
|1108.8 - 1110.7||Tennin||天仁|
|1110.7 - 1112.7||Ten'ei||天永|
|1113.7 - 1118.4||Eikyū||永久|
|1118.4 - 1120.4||Genei||元永|
|1120.4 - 1124.4||Hōan||保安|
|1124.4 - 1126.1||Tenji||天治|
|1126.1 - 1131.1||Taiji||大治||1129 The retired emperor Toba, Shirakawa's grandson, becomes senior retired emperor; he relies on the Ise Heishi for military support.|
|1131.1 - 1132.8||Tenshō||天承|
|1132.8 - 1135.4||Chōshō||長承|
|1135.4 - 1141.7||Hōen||保延|
|1141.7 - 1142.4||Eiji||永治|
|1142.4 - 1144.2||Kōji||康治|
|1144.2 - 1145.7||Ten'yō||天養|
|1145.7 - 1151.1||Kyūan||久安|
|1151.1 - 1154.10||Ninpei||仁平|
|1154.10 - 1156.4||Kyūju||久寿|
|1156.4 - 1159.4||Hōgen||保元||1156 Hōgen Disturbance; Taira no Kiyomori and Minamoto no Yoshitomo support victorious Emperor Go-Shirakawa.|
|1159.4 - 1160.1||Heiji||平治||1159 Heiji Disturbance; Kiyomori foils Yoshitomo's attempted coup.|
|1160.1 - 1161.9||Eiryaku||永暦|
|1161.9 - 1163.3||Ōhō||応保|
|1163.3 - 1165.6||Chōkan||長寛|
|1165.6 - 1166.8||Eiman||永万|
|1166.8 - 1169.4||Nin'an||仁安||1167 Taira no Kiyomori becomes chancellor (daijōdaijin).|
|1169.4 - 1171.4||Kaō||嘉応|
|1171.4 - 1175.7||Shōan||承安|
|1175.7 - 1177.8||Angen||安元||1175 Hōnen preaches Pure Land teachings in Kyoto, leading to formation of the popular Pure Land sect.|
|1177.8 - 1181.7||Jishō||治承||1181 Death of Kiyomori.|
|1181.7 - 1182.5||Yōwa||養和|
|1182.5 - 1184.4||Juei||寿永|
|1184.4 - 1185.8||Genryaku||元暦|
(1185 - 1333)
|1185.8 - 1190.4||Bunji||文治||1185 Final defeat of the Heike by Minamoto no Yoshitsune at Dan-no-ura. The establishment by Minamoto no Yoritomo of the shugo-jitō (military governor and land steward) system in the first year of the Bunji era is now taught in Japanese schools to mark the start of the Kamakura Period.|
|1190.4 - 1199.4||Kenkyū||建久||1192 Kamakura Bakufu established by Minamoto no Yoritomo. Formerly taught in Japanese schools to mark the beginning of the Kamakura Period.|
|1199.4 - 1201.2||Shōji||正治||1199 Death of Yoritomo.|
|1201.2 - 1204.2||Kennin||建仁|
|1204.2 - 1206.4||Genkyū||元久||1204 Assassination of Minamoto no Yoriie by Hōjō Tokimasa.|
|1206.4 - 1207.10||Ken'ei||建永|
|1207.10 - 1211.3||Shōgen||承元|
|1211.3 - 1213.12||Kenryaku||建暦|
|1213.12 - 1219.4||Kenpō||建保|
|1219.4 - 1222.4||Jōkyū||承久||1221 Jōkyū Disturbance results in stronger bakufu control.|
|1222.4 - 1224.11||Jōō||貞応|
|1224.11 - 1225.4||Gennin||元仁|
|1225.4 - 1227.12||Karoku||嘉禄|
|1227.12 - 1229.3||Antei||安貞|
|1229.3 - 1232.4||Kanki||寛喜|
|1232.4 - 1233.4||Jōei||貞永||1232 Jōei (or, more properly, Goseibai) Code promulgated; 51 articles governing samurai behavior.|
|1233.4 - 1234.11||Tenpuku||天福|
|1234.11 - 1235.9||Bunryaku||文暦|
|1235.9 - 1238.11||Katei||嘉禎|
|1238.11 - 1239.2||Ryakunin||暦仁|
|1239.2 - 1240.7||En'ō||延応|
|1240.7 - 1243.2||Ninji||仁治|
|1243.2 - 1247. 2||Kangen||寛元||1244 Construction of Eiheiji.|
|1247.2 - 1249.3||Hōji||宝治|
|1249.3 - 1256.10||Kenchō||建長|
|1256.10 - 1257.3||Kōgen||康元|
|1257.3 - 1259.3||Shōka||正嘉|
|1259.3 - 1260.4||Shōgen||正元|
|1260.4 - 1261.2||Bun'ō||文応|
|1261.2 - 1264.2||Kōchō||弘長|
|1264.2 - 1275.4||Bun'ei||文永||1266 Kublai Khan seeks relations with Japan, sends envoys in 1268.
1274 Mongols attempt first invasion of Japan.
|1275.4 - 1278.2||Kenji||建治|
|1278.2 - 1288.4||Kōan||弘安||1281 Mongols attempt second invasion of Japan.|
|1288.4 - 1293.8||Shōō||正応|
|1293.8 - 1299.4||Einin||永仁|
|1299.4 - 1302.11||Shōan||正安|
|1302.11 - 1303.8||Kengen||乾元|
|1303.8 - 1306.12||Kagen||嘉元|
|1306.12 - 1308.10||Tokuji||徳治|
|1308.10 - 1311.4||Enkyō||延慶|
|1311.4 - 1312.3||Ōchō||応長|
|1312.3 - 1317.2||Shōwa||正和|
|1317.2 - 1319.4||Bunpō||文保||1318 Emperor Go-Daigo ascends throne.|
|1319.4 - 1321.2||Gen'ō||元応|
|1321.2 - 1324.12||Genkō||元亨|
|1324.12 - 1326.4||Shōchū||正中|
|1326.4 - 1329.8||Karyaku||嘉暦|
|1329.8 - 1331.8||Gentoku||元徳|
(1333 - 1573)
|1331.8 - 1334.1||Genkō||元弘||Emperor Go-Daigo adopted the era name "Genkō" in 1331, but Emperor Kōgon of the Northern Court continued to use the previous name "Gentoku" until until 1332.4, when he promulgated the "Shōkyō" era name (see below). The Shōkyō era thus marks the start of alternative reign names that continued throughout the Northern and Southern Courts period (1336-92). In 1333.5, however, the overthrow of the Kamakura Bakufu resulted in the disenthronement of Kōgon, and only the era name Genkō was in use. Era names diverged again in 1336, during the Kenmu era.
1333 Kamakura Bakufu overthrown.
|1334.1 - 1336.2||Kenmu||建武||"Kenmu" was used by Emperor Go-Daigo until 1336.2, when the era name for the Southern Court was changed to "Engen." The Northern Court under Emperor Kōmyō continued to use "Kenmu" until 1338.8, when the era name was changed to "Ryakuō."|
|1336.2 - 1340.4||Engen||延元||1336 Beginning of reign names considered exclusive to the Southern Court (gray shading used, which may be slightly distracting on small screens).
(Engen 1; also counted as Kenmu 3) Beginning of the Northern and Southern Courts period (until 1392), with Emperor Kōmyō in Kyoto and Emperor Go-Daigo at Yoshino in Nara.
|1340.4 - 1346.12||Kōkoku||興国|
|1346.12 - 1370.7||Shōhei||正平|
|1370.7 - 1372.10||Kentoku||建徳|
|1372.10 - 1375.5||Bunchū||文中|
|1375.5 - 1381.2||Tenju||天授|
|1381.2 - 1384.4||Kōwa||弘和|
|1384.4 - 1392.10*||Genchū||元中||1392 (Genchū 9; Meitoku 3 for the Northern Court) marks the end of the Southern Court and the return to a unified sequence of era names|
|1332.4 - 1334.1||Shōkyō||正慶||1332 Beginning of reign names considered exclusive to the Northern Court; "Shōkyō" was used at the court of Emperor Kōgon (r. 1331-1333); a return to single era names lasted until 1336.2, when Emperor Go-Daigo of the Southern Court changed his court's era name to Engen (see above). The Kenmu era name continued in use only at the Northern Court until 1338, when "Ryakuō" was adopted there.|
|1338.8 - 1342.4||Ryakuō||暦応||1338 Muromachi Bakufu established in Kyoto by Ashikaga Takauji.|
|1342.4 - 1345.10||Kōei||康永|
|1345.10 - 1350.2||Jōwa||貞和|
|1350.2 - 1352.9||Kannō||観応|
|1352.9 - 1356.3||Bunwa||文和|
|1356.3 - 1361.3||Enbun||延文||1358 Death of Ashikaga Takauji.|
|1361.3 - 1362.9||Kōan||康安|
|1362.9 - 1368.2||Jōji||貞治|
|1368.2 - 1375.2||Ōan||応安|
|1375.2 - 1379.3||Eiwa||永和|
|1379.3 - 1381.2||Kōryaku||康暦|
|1381.2 - 1384.2||Eitoku||永徳|
|1384.2 - 1387.8||Shitoku||至徳|
|1387.8 - 1389.2||Kakei||嘉慶|
|1389.2 - 1390.3||Kōō||康応|
|1390.3 - 1394.7||Meitoku||明徳||1391-92 Meitoku Rebellion put down by Muromachi Bakufu.
1392 Reunification of Northern and Southern Courts in Meitoku 3 (Genchū 9 for the Southern Court).
|1394 - 1428.4||Ōei||応永||1397 Kinkakuji built by Ashikaga Yoshimitsu.|
|1428.4 - 1429.9||Shōchō||正長|
|1429.9 - 1441.2||Eikyō||永享|
|1441.2 - 1444.2||Kakitsu||嘉吉||1441 Kakitsu Disturbance, resulting in the assassination of Ashikaga Yoshinori.|
|1444.2 - 1449.7||Bun'an||文安|
|1449.7 - 1452.7||Hōtoku||宝徳|
|1452.7 - 1455.7||Kyōtoku||享徳|
|1455.7 - 1457.9||Kōshō||康正|
|1457.9 - 1460.12||Chōroku||長禄|
|1460.12 - 1466.2||Kanshō||寛正|
|1466.2 - 1467.3||Bunshō||文正|
|1467.3 - 1469.4||Ōnin||応仁||1467 Ōnin War begins, continuing until 1477.|
|1469.4 - 1487.7||Bunmei||文明||1480s Sengoku (Warring States) daimyō emerge. The Sengoku period is sometimes said to start in 1467, sometimes in 1493; the end is variously marked at 1568, 1573, or 1590.|
|1487.7 - 1489.8||Chōkyō||長享|
|1489.8 - 1492.7||Entoku||延徳|
|1492.7 - 1501.2||Meiō||明応|
|1501.2 - 1504.2||Bunki||文亀|
|1504.2 - 1521.8||Eishō||永正|
|1521.8 - 1528.8||Taiei||大永|
|1528.8 - 1532.7||Kyōroku||享禄|
|1532.7 - 1555.10||Tenbun||天文||1543 Portuguese traders introduce Western muskets and canon into Japan.
1549 Francis Xavier lands at Kagoshima and begins Christian mission.
|1555.10 - 1558.2||Kōji||弘治|
|1558.2 - 1570.4||Eiroku||永禄||1560 Oda Nobunaga defeats Imagawa Yoshimoto in the Battle of Okehazama, concludes an alliance with Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1562.|
|1570.4 - 1573.7||Genki||元亀||1571 Nobunaga destroys Enryakuji, headquarters of the Tendai sect on Mt. Hiei near Kyoto.|
|1573.7 - 1592.12||Tenshō||天正||1582 Nobunaga betrayed by Akechi Mitsuhide; Toyotomi Hideyoshi avenges Nobunaga's death, enters Osaka Castle in 1583.
1585 Hideyoshi becomes imperial regent (kanpaku).
1592 After defeating the Go-Hōjō at Odawara in 1590, Hideyoshi invades Korea; truce reached in 1596.
|1592.12 - 1596.10||Bunroku||文禄|
(1600 - 1867)
|1596.10 - 1615.7||Keichō||慶長||1597 Hideyoshi moves to Osaka Castle, orders second invasion of Korea.
1598 Hideyoshi dies and Japanese armies leave Korea.
1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu wins victory in the Battle of Sekigahara, achieving military predominance; Edo (Tokugawa) Bakufu established in 1603.
1615 Defeat of Toyotomi Hideyori at Osaka.
|1615.7 - 1624.2||Genna||元和||1616 Death of Ieyasu, interred first at Mt. Kunō in Shizuoka and later at Nikkō.|
|1624.2 - 1644.12||Kan'ei||寛永||1617 Western trading ships limited to Nagasaki and Hirado; Japanese ships prohibited from travelling abroad in 1635; Chinese traders limited to Nagasaki the same year; Portuguese ships forbidden to land from 1639; Dutch trading mission moved to Dejima in Nagasaki in 1641, completing the implementation of the bakufu's exclusion policy (sakoku).
1617 Licensed quarter at Yoshiwara in Edo authorized.
1635 System of alternate service (sankin kōtai) institutionalized.
1637 Shimabara Rebellion.
|1644.12 - 1648.2||Shōhō||正保|
|1648.2 - 1652.9||Keian||慶安|
|1652.9 - 1655.4||Shōō||承応|
|1655.4 - 1658.7||Meireki||明暦||1657 Much of Edo destroyed in a great fire.|
|1658.7 - 1661.4||Manji||万治|
|1661.4 - 1673.9||Kanbun||寛文|
|1673.9 - 1681.9||Enpō||延宝|
|1681.9 - 1684.2||Tenna||天和|
|1684.2 - 1688.9||Jōkyō||貞享|
|1688.9 - 1704.3||Genroku||元禄||A high point in Japanese culture reached with the activities of Chikamatsu Monzaemon (puppet theater), Ihara Saikaku (fiction), and Matsuo Bashō (haikai/haiku).
1702 Vendetta of the Akō rōnin; dramatized and first performed at the Takemoto-za in Osaka in 1748.
|1704.3 - 1711.4||Hōei||宝永|
|1711.4 - 1716.6||Shōtoku||正徳||1716 First major reform of Tokugawa shogunate under Yoshimune.|
|1716.6 - 1736.4||Kyōhō||享保||1733 First violent uprisings by commoners in Edo protesting high prices.|
|1736.4 - 1741.2||Genbun||元文|
|1741.2 - 1744.2||Kanpō||寛保|
|1744.2 - 1748.7||Enkyō||延享|
|1748.7 - 1751.10||Kan'en||寛延|
|1751.10 - 1764.6||Hōreki||宝暦|
|1764.6 - 1772.11||Meiwa||明和|
|1772.11 - 1781.4||An'ei||安永|
|1781.4 - 1789.1||Tenmei||天明||1787 Matsudaira Sadanobu appointed senior councilor, initiates the Kansei Reforms; forced into retirement in 1793.|
|1789.1 - 1801.2||Kansei||寛政|
|1801.2 - 1804.2||Kyōwa||享和|
|1804.2 - 1818.4||Bunka||文化||1811 Shogunate establishes an office to translate Western documents.|
|1818.4 - 1830.12||Bunsei||文政|
|1830.12 - 1844.12||Tenpō||天保||1837 Ōshio Heihachirō leads riots in Osaka.
1841 Tenpō Reforms begun by Mizuno Tadakuni.
|1844.12 - 1848.2||Kōka||弘化|
|1848.2 - 1854.11||Kaei||嘉永||1853 Commodore Perry arrives at Uraga .|
|1854.11 - 1860.3||Ansei||安政||1858 Ii Naosuke forces approval of American treaty.|
|1860.3 - 1861.2||Man'en||万延||1860 Ii Naosuke assassinated.|
|1861.2 - 1864.2||Bunkyū||文久|
|1864.2 - 1865.4||Genji||元治|
|1865.4 - 1868.9||Keiō||慶応||1867 Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquishes title as shogun.|
(1868 - 1912)
|1868.9 - 1912.7||Meiji||明治||1868 Edo renamed Tokyo and designated capital; era names made to coincide with reign of emperor.
1872 Conscription and education ordinances enacted.
1873 Land taxes revised; signs prohibiting Christianity taken down.
1877 Satsuma Rebellion.
1884 Peerage created.
1885 Cabinet system established.
1889 Constitution promulgated; first national election held in 1890.
1894-95 Sino-Japanese War; annexation of Taiwan.
1904-05 Russo-Japanese War.
1910 Annexation of Korea.
(1912 - 1926)
|1912.7 - 1926.12||Taishō||大正||1914-1918 World War I.
1923 Great Kantō Earthquake.
1926 Universal male suffrage (first election in 1928).
(1926 - 1989)
|1926.12 - 1989.1||Shōwa||昭和||1931 Manchurian Incident.
1933 Japan leaves League of Nations (effective 1935).
1941 Attack on Pearl Harbor.
1945 Atomic bombs dropped; end of World War II.
1951 Treaty of San Francisco signed
1955 Liberal Democratic Party achieves political dominance.
1964 Summer Olympics held in Tokyo; Shinkansen "bullet train" starts operation.
1972 Okinawa returned to Japan.
1973 First "oil shock" begins.
1978 Second "oil shock" begins.
(1989 - 2019)
|1989.1 - 2019.4||Heisei||平成||1990 Japanese economic bubble bursts; beginning of the "Lost Decade."
1993 The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) fails to win a majority in the House of Representatives; coalition cabinets formed beginning in 1994.
2009 The Democratic Party of Japan wins a majority of seats in the House of Representatives, marking the end of LDP parliamentary rule.
2011 The Great East Japan Earthquake (March 11).
2012 The LDP-Kōmeitō coalition regains control of the House of Representatives in a landslide general-election victory.
2013 The Liberal Democratic Party cements its comeback with an overwhelming victory in the House of Councillors election.
2019 Heisei Emperor abdicates on April 30.
(2019 - )
|2019.5 -||Reiwa||令和||2019 Crown Prince Naruhito becomes emperor on May 1, becoming the first modern emperor to ascend the thrown while the previous emperor is still alive.|